Graphene is the next exotic materials scientists have found a very interesting characteristics . Its thickness is only 1 atom and , like diamonds , are composed of the elements carbon ( C ) , but form a hexagon pattern in 2 dimensions .
At first , a Professor at the University of Manchester England named Prof . Andre Geim , a descendant of 1/16 Jewish – 15/16 German who was born in Russia , thinking to solve problems in a natural instability that graphene could be used for science . The year was 2002.
Then joined with a PhD student who was a descendant of Russia which has long been a British citizen named Kostya Novoselov to carry out intensive research . A scientist born in 1974 and was included in the list of 35 people under 35 years of innovative publications MIT in 2008 .
In the early stages of research , they both take the approach slab to polish graphite ( the material that we find everyday in ordinary pencil tip ) into slices as thin as possible . Then the results of the polished slices again , in the right direction , up to 1 nanometer thick layers produced . Research long and tiring , but the quality of the obtained graphene does not achieve the desired target . The wedge is unstable and 1 atom thick graphene layers are found in very small populations .
Finally a strange information obtained from a senior colleague named Oleg Novoselov Shklyarevskii were initially discovered by accident . Oleg Shklyarevskii said that an ordinary insulation attached to the surface of the graphite exfoliated and cleansed then able to produce graphene layers that are thinner than 1 nanometer .
Encouraged by this idea , a new approach is taken : from polishing , peeling reversed into graphite . And in 2003 , finally Novoselov managed to obtain one atom thick graphene layers of carbon that is 1/10 nanometer and the findings were published in 2004 .
The race to harness the potential of graphene , a carbon molecular variation harder than diamond , yet very versatile , and is the best conductor of electricity in the world is starting.
They both eventually awarded the Nobel Prize in 2010 . Even Sir earned from the queen of England . Novoselov is currently a Professor and has been leading the Graphene Institute , an institution that digerojok fund 500 Billion to explore the use of graphene , formed by the British government .
When a graphene sheet is tested all the physical and chemical characteristics are found :
1 . Graphene is stronger than diamond . When immersed in a liquid that can destroy a diamond , graphene remains.
2 . Electrons flow very well , even better than regular cable . Electricity flow velocity in graphene is almost as fast as light pouring in fiberoptic fibers .
3 . Graphene is very thin , measuring only 1 atom but the chain is stronger than other materials that are much thicker .
4 . Graphene sheet shaped like a rubber sheet .
Although early theories Graphene has been started since 1947 , but recently discovered a way to extract them in 2003 that : Pencil and tape .
So the discovery of graphene is still only once . Opportunities for its utilization is still wide open . The position of graphene in everyday life is practically equivalent to plastic : cheap because supply is abundant and easy to obtain , but once widespread utilization .
Following the use of graphene application :
a. Touch screen that can not be torn up for a phone that can be bent like a watch strap on your wrist ,
b . a revolution in medical diagnostics , drug delivery and bionic devices ,
c . protective coating for everything from food packaging as well as for wind turbines ,
d . a filter fresh water through desalination membranes are even able to filter radioactive waste ,
e . computer chip that is dramatically faster and of course broadband ,
f . solar panels that can be painted or sprayed onto any surface enough , and
g . recent discoveries about the revolutionary battery with a much higher capacity than the ones we use today , but with a very short charge time
– These are just some of the graphene revolution was initiated by researchers around the world .
Graphene has attracted a lot of investment of millions of dollars for its development . Not least the battery field . Graphene battery is actually a capacitor , or rather ultra capacitors . So it does not happen any chemical reaction during the operation . Electron only compressed course in it . And because it is made from the same material in pencil , then it is not harmful to the environment .
Then the rapid filling time has attracted worldwide attention . To the physical size of today’s mobile phone battery , battery sufficiently charged Graphene on voltage 4-5 volts for 80 seconds to complete . 1 minutes 20 seconds already full ! Amazing is not it ? But it seems , it still takes 5-10 years to see this graphene batteries available in the market , because the storage capacity is still 20 % achieved to date .